Кордовская декларация

Годовая подписка на продуктовые корзины.  Доступно каждому


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Этот важнейший документ по сути говорит о необходимости новой парадигмы сельского хозяйства. (Need for a new agricultural).

Принят он на семинаре FAO в Кордове, там же где было объявлено о том, что 2013 год = год Киноа. (см. Год незнакомого злака)

Нижележащий текст не очень корректно вытащен из PDF. Кое где побились переносы строки. Можете читать в оригинале текст здесь.

Информация о мероприятии в Кордове/вэбкаст

Ко́рдова (исп. Córdoba [ˈkorðoβa]) — город в Андалусии (южная Испания)

Декларация Декларация

Cordoba Declaration on Promising Crops for the XXI




This declaration is the result of the International Seminar “Crops for the XXI Century” co


by the Spanish

government (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and Ministry of

Foreign Affairs and Cooperation), United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, International Treaty on Plant Genetic

Resources for Food and Agriculture, International Fund for Agricultural Development, Bioversity International, Crops for

the Future, S

low Food International, the Spanish Royal Academy of Gastronomy, Andalusian government, CeiA3,

Diputación, University and Ayuntamiento de Córdoba, and Cátedra de Estudios sobre Hambre y Pobreza as host. The main

goal of the Seminar was to fight world hunge

r and rural poverty by giving more attention to underutilized and promising

crops. The Seminar was also the first international event to celebrate 2013 as the UN International Year of Quinoa. It

included open debates with participants from developed and de

veloping countries, as well as members of civil society,

farmers’ organizations, industry and consumers, at national and international level. The Seminar was opened by the

Spanish Minister of Agriculture, Food and Environment and the Director General of FA

O. The Declaration was developed by

the co

organizing institutions.

Cordoba Declaration on Promising Crops for the XXI Century

In an increasingly globalized and interdependent world, eradicating hunger is a prerequisite for

peace and world security. If we are to

feed 9 billion people in 2050 in a sustainable way, protect the

environment, provide healthy and nutritious food for all, and enhance the livelihoods of farmers, we

need more diversity in agricultural and food systems. This is one of the key messages behi

nd the

designation of

2013 as the UN International Year of Quinoa, the sacred crop of the Incas, a symbol

for the importance of thousands of promising crops.

An adaptive, diversified agriculture will need to make use of many hundreds of crops that have


come neglected by modern agriculture; crops that have been used for millennia but which have

been increasingly forgotten as a few crops have become commercially dominant in food production.

The use of a wider range of crops and species can play a central r

ole in combating hunger,

malnutrition and poverty, in helping to secure sustainability and in building resilience, thus making a

durable contribution to the Right to Food and the Right to Health embedded in the Universal

Declaration of Human Rights. These

crops will provide a key part of the diversity needed to ensure

adaptability to change, particularly climate change. They will also be essential to achieve the post

2015 sustainable development goals.

Securing the full potential of these promising but u

nderutilized crops and species in production and

consumption systems will require actions on many fronts. These actions include:

Improving education and awareness to ensure that the values of a much wider range of crops

are recognized by all society;


easing recognition and support for small scale and family farmers, women and men, in

maintaining diversified and resilient agricultural systems;

Facilitating the conservation, access, availability, use and exchange of seeds by farmers;

Promoting formal and

informal research and plant breeding to realize the full potential of these


Improving access to markets and stimulating demand for a wider range of crops, while ensuring

that benefits are shared fairly;

Two concrete and far reaching actions propo

sed are:

The launching of a

new international dialogue on plant genetic resources for food and

agriculture to help enhance policies and priorities to promote the use of a wider range of crops.

This should explore ways in which the International Treaty on

Plant Genetic Resources for Food

and Agriculture can further support the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of neglected

and underutilized crops.

The establishment of an Ombudsman that would represent the rights of future generations in

national an

d international decision making

national parliaments and within the UN system,

since conservation of agricultural biodiversity and other natural resources are relevant both to

present and future generations.

The attached global agenda for advancing the

sustainable conservation and use of neglected and

underutilized species (NUS)


includes and further develops these and additional issues.


In this document of the 2012 Cordoba Declaration, the terms NUS and promising crops are being considered


A Global Agenda for

advancing the sustainable conservation and use of

Neglected and

Underutilized Species (NUS)


eed for a new agricultural paradigm

Biodiversity for food and agriculture is central in sustaining humankind on Earth, and most strategic

to fight the formidable challenges of food and nutrition insecurity, poverty, and climate change. We

believe that fee

ding a 9 billion world population by 2050 cannot be achieved with the current food

system, which relies on 20 or so major staples and wastes almost 1/3 of the food produced.

According to FAO


, approximately 30,000 edible plant species have been identified

, of which more

than 7,000 have been used in the history of humanity to meet basic human needs such as food,

clothing, fiber, medicine, construction materials and fuel. At present 30 crops constitute 90% of the

calories in the human diet, and only three sp

ecies (rice, wheat, maize) account for more than half of

the energy supply.

Ignoring and underestimating this enormous pool of food is a mistake that we cannot afford,

especially when many of them continue to be essential in rural areas of developing cou

ntries. There

are many reasons why underutilized crops deserve deference, for example, to fight hunger and rural

poverty, to mitigate the effect of climatic changes and to reduce malnutrition and improve health via

dietary diversification. Agricultural bio

diversity is especially relevant in these areas where the 1.4

billion people live on less than $1.25 a day and they need more effective ways to move out of

poverty through a better use of their natural resources. Furthermore, because of the rapid advance


f climate change that will alter the agro

ecosystems and in consequence the productivity of

currently important crops to become unviable in certain areas of the world, these crops may have to

be replaced with more adapted ones to the new conditions.


and consistent efforts are needed to harness the untapped potential of agricultural

biodiversity, including neglected and underutilized species (NUS). These species


and their wealth of

associated traditional knowledge are an strategic ally in sustainable

and productive agro

ecosystems, contributing towards their resilience in addressing climatic changes and economic

distress while supporting traditional and healthy food systems. The promotion and use

enhancement of NUS through consistent Research and Devel

opment (R&D) investments is also a

durable contribution to reaffirm the Right to Food embedded in the 1948 Universal Declaration of

Human Rights


and the binding International Covenant of economic, social and cultural rights.

Safeguarding the resource

s to secure our future

These non

commodity crops have been appreciated for their nutritional value, hardiness, good

adaptability to stresses, versatility in use and their rich associated food culture and traditions. Today

they have fallen into neglect bec

ause of their poor economic competitiveness with major crops that

have benefitted of consistent investments in R&D or of the direct support of their production and

markets (e.g. use of subsidies and other forms of incentives). Major crops dominate national



First Report of the State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources f

or Food and Agriculture (1997).



For a more complete description of NUS visit Crops for the Future web site at





international markets and government policies to the detriment of hundreds of other important life

saving crops that together have huge significance. Poor

or episodic and merely market oriented

research attention has deprived underutilized crops of

improved varieties, enhanced cultivation

practices, technologies to address drudgery in value addition, organized and efficient market chains.

Not lastly, their marginalization is aggravated by the wrong perception that these traditional crops

are “food of

the poor”.

In many cases, underutilized crops provide essential micronutrients and thus complement staple

foods that provide the necessary energy. They provide unique flavoring in local cuisine, strengthen

local gastronomic traditions as well as income

opportunities for both rural and urban poor. NUS also

contribute to diversified agricultural systems, buffering shocks from rising of food commodity prices

and enriching agro

ecosystems making them healthier and more resilient and enhancing their


n to marginal areas and low input agriculture. Many NUS thrive in marginal areas where

few other crops grow and where poor rural live, so they are particularly relevant with regard to

poverty reduction and food security. Diversified agro

ecosystems employi

ng these crops can

contribute to the empowerment of vulnerable groups and communities and strengthen countries’

self reliance in agricultural production, contribute to harness and safeguard centuries

old traditions

and are a powerful instrument to keep ali

ve the cultural identity of farmers and indigenous

communities. Thus they are a pillar to achieve the Right to Food and Food Security at all levels.

Supporting the International Year of Quinoa

The United Nations has designated 2013 as the International Ye

ar of Quinoa. Such designation is also

a symbol to highlight the importance of thousands of many other underutilized and promising crops.

The international community needs to recognize the importance that South

South cooperation has

played in the recent sc

ientific and agronomic successes related to the cultivation and consumption

of Quinoa, and the importance of such cooperation for other underutilized crops especially among

regions and countries with similar agro

ecological conditions. The further developm

ent of

sustainable production and consumption systems for Quinoa needs international support. The

international community should emphasize the need to respect relevant laws related to access to

genetic resources of quinoa and the benefit

sharing arising fr

om their use, while ensuring that the

legal frameworks provide an enabling and inclusive environment for future research and

development related to Quinoa


The Way Forward: Key Priorities

Raising awareness of NUS strategic roles



that NUS re

present a wealth of diversity that can be harnessed to contribute more

effectively to implement the United Nations multilateral goals and instruments such as

the post

2015 Sustainable Development Goals,

the MDG (esp. Targets 1.A and 1.C of MDG1


), Agenda 2


(esp. Chapter 3


), the CBD (esp. Art.1


), the Aichi Targets (esp. Target 14


), the Second GPA of

FAO (esp. Activity 11


), the International Treaty on PGRFA (esp. Art 6.2e


) and the WHO Global

Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health


, as well as ot

her globally and regionally relevant

Agendas and frameworks such as the Diversity for Development initiative bringing together a

wide range of research and development partners in this arena


and regional and thematic

frameworks such as the 2009 Agricultur

al Biodiversity Initiative for Africa


, the 2010 Suwon

Framework for Asia



and the 2011 Near East/North Africa




the 2005

Chennai Platform for Action


and the 2010 Suwon Framework



Conserving genetic and cultural diversity of NUS



that there are diversity of crops and complementarities of technologies and agricultural

systems in line with the diversity of ecologies of each country,


the increasing

importance that society gives to organic farming and to urban agriculture and

the role that

promising crops play in this context.


that crop diversity is neglected and being lost

together with a wealth of indigenous knowledge associated to it,


that the integration

of these species makes farming, social and economic s

ystems more resilient to the effects of

climate change. Therefore


that these resources vital to the wellbeing of Humankind

be better conserved, studied, distributed and promoted.


that both ex situ and in situ

conservation methods be use

d to protect these dwindling resources in order to facilitate their use

by farmers and researchers, and at the same time allow their dynamic evolution and adaptation

to change.


the establishment of on farm conservation programmes for their


zation and use enhancement in harmony with traditional rights, cultural identity,

ecosystem integrity and gender equity principles. Therefore


on Donors to support NUS

conservation and use activities leveraging existing mechanisms and programmes availa

ble at

national and international level, given special attention to young and small

scale farmers.













Promoting development and commercialization of all varieties, primarily farmers’ varieties/landraces and underutilized























and http://aarinena.org









Promoting NUS in small

scale family farming and to improve rural livelihoods



that these species make farming, social and economic systems mo

re resilient to the

effects of climate change and that NUS are particularly important livelihood asset for the rural



the unique contribution to humankind that farmers and local communities

have made and will continue to make in safeguardi

ng NUS and associated culture and


in particular the role played by women farmers in the conservation and sustainable management

of NUS.


facilitating conservation, access, availability, use and exchange of NUS

seeds by farmers.


on t

he international community for actions aimed at the recognition,

encouragement and support of farmer and indigenous communities.


informal seed


including genebank materials

among farmers, in particular between those in

similar agro


ical zones of the world.


on international and national institutions,

including gene banks and research systems, to further support farmers and their communities

and organizations in conserving and managing these crops for food security and agricultura



Developing NUS Value chains from Production to Consumption and to Gastronomy



that in most countries there is a disconnect between agriculture and farmers with

consumers, and that food is consumed to meet not only nutritional r

equirements but that it also

has a social and cultural value for people. In promoting the use of NUS,


strengthening the links between farmers, researchers and consumers.


the growing

importance of NUS for the development of gastronomy an

d the important role that cooks,

restaurants and food industry and food retailers can play in promoting the use and adding value

to their products.


the important role of markets in fostering the use enhancement of



public and priva

te sector actions to support the development and/or

improvement of the value chains of these traditional resources and their products along with

interventions in support of local markets. Also


better access of these resources to

international mar

kets, ensuring equity and fairness amongst all participants, recognizing that

important challenges are to expand the demand of NUS consumption in developing countries,

increase the share of value added for NUS products in developing countries and remove tr


barriers for their products, particularly in developed countries.

Changing of wrong perceptions about NUS and developing the evidence base

5. Aware

of the wrong perception that often surround traditional crops,


the essential

need to consol

idate the many data and reports presently held in diverse sources measuring and

demonstrating the value of these crops by developing and using objective criteria, such as

nutritive content and income returns.


that the scientific basis to understa

nd their

contribution to human nutrition and health needs further strengthening and therefore


generating, collecting and disseminating data on food composition and



together in an open and inclusive way to bring about the more op

en sharing

and common

benefit use of such knowledge.

Enhancing research and capacities for promoting the use of NUS

6. Call

on institutions to support the strengthening of their capacities, including learning and

research, in particular on crop impro

vement, and the establishment of research networks for

generating and sharing knowledge on NUS on themes including conservation, genetics,

agronomy, value chain, nutrition and policies.


on these institutions to integrate and scale


participatory app

roaches with the involvement of all actors from farmers to consumers. Finally,


on public and private institutions to reposition promising crops in the research and extension


Building an inter

sector and interdisciplinary collaboration for NU




that the future of many promising crops depends on the close interactions across different

disciplines (such as agriculture, nutrition, health, education), sectors (public and private), and

stakeholders (farmers, researchers, value chain actors, d

ecision makers etc),


mechanisms and processes able to facilitate strategic synergies in support of existing national,

regional and international networks and collaborative platforms



Creating a conducive policy environment for NUS



the strategic role of NUS in fulfilling the right to food in terms of nutrition security,

healthy food systems and sustainable diets,


a greater deployment of NUS in

national nutritional policies and in crop diversification programmes;



eir deployment

in nutrition safety net programmes, food assistance and school feeding programmes, school

gardens and food reserves.


the largest mobilization of promising crops for improving

people livelihoods and to that end


on Governments to

develop policies that will allow to

mainstream best practices, methods and tools into Government actions, including incentives for

NUS cultivation and conservation on farm.



of the Rio Six

Point Action Plan for the International Treaty on Plant G

enetic Resources

for Food and Agriculture adopted by consensus at a High

level Roundtable at Rio+20,



with satisfaction

its calls upon the international community to raise awareness of the actual and

potential value of underutilized species of local

and regional importance for food security and

sustainable development. In relation to the Rio Six

Point priority to facilitate a new Keystone


dialogue to complete the governance of all plant genetic resources for food and agriculture under

the Treaty



that such dialogue should,

inter alia

, enhance policies and priorities to

promote the use of a wider range of crops, and focus in particular in NUS. Finally, in relation to

the Río Six

Point of exploring the possible expansion of the list of th

e crops included in the Annex I

to the Treaty,


that such exploration takes into account criteria such as the role of

crops to face climatic changes and to ensure a nutritious and diversified diet.

Establishment of an Ombudsman for the future




that the conservation of agricultural agrobiodiversity and other natural resources is

essential for the survival of future generations,


that concepts such as inter


justice and rights of future generations have be

come a recurring issue when discussing the future

of our Planet,


that future generations do not vote nor consume, so their interest is not

necessarily reflected in our institutional, political and market systems. Measures should be


to reinforc

e democracy integrating the interest of generations to come. Thus,



establishment of an Ombudsman for future generations that would represent their rights in

national and international decision making

national parliaments and within the UN sys


since conservation issues encompass natural resources of relevance both to present and future

generations. The role of this Ombudsman will be to represent those not yet born and to ensure

that current decisions do not jeopardize their inte

rests and ri

ghts in the future.



Diversity for Development


PAR (http://bit.ly/Xg51EH


, Indigenous Partnership for Agrobiodiversity and Food

Sovereignty (http://bit.ly/Wu4lN2), APAARI (http://www.apaari.org/), AARINENA (


) and






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